Legetafo City Administration Unexpected Plan Philosophers define moral values as part of values (that we deem worthy) which applies to human conduct. In the course of the pursuit of our life, some of us are more inclined to place premium on maximizing pleasure and avoiding pain while the rest of us tend to regard virtues (living in truth, and honesty) as worthwhile in itself that ought to be pursued even at great personal inconvenience.
Psychologist Lawrence Kholberg is one of those prominent scholars who have shed some light on our understanding of the nature and characteristics of morality prevalent in a given society. According to him, individuals pass through three levels of moral development: the pre-conventional level, the conventional level, and the post-conventional level. In his view, at the pre-conventional level people exhibit “unquestioning obedience” to the power that be and care only for the satisfaction of their individual needs. With such people, the concepts of “fairness”, “justice”, and “loyalty” are utterly non-existent. Any action is taken in the “instrumental sense” –“You scratch my back, and I will scratch yours”. The distinguishing features of these people are excessive hypocrisy, servitude and weak character.
At the conventional level, the overriding concern of individuals is to live by the conventions, customs and laws prevailing at the moment no matter what their contents may be. Credulity and blind faith are the hallmarks of these individuals. For them what matters most is intention rather than consequences of actions. Thus, racism may be wrong, but one shouldn’t protest against it for it leads to social chaos. This view of morality undoubtedly commits the fallacy of logic – “what is”, “ought to be “, too.
In Kholberg’s view, the post-conventional level is characterized by higher values and the questioning of the existing system in the light of social utility and such abstract principles as justice and human dignity. People at this level are highly enlightened endowed with sound and critical judgment; alas, they are often a rarity in many societies.
Kholberg’s theoretical framework of moral development is highly informative in making sense of what is going on around us today. As evident in our political, professional, and daily social life, while those hypocrite, wicked and inept individuals are well embraced and granted significant public positions simply on account of their mere submissiveness, loyalty, affinity and relatedness; in contrast, those highly enlightened, independent-minded, and decent individuals are, by and large, alienated and unjustly denied to fulfill their rightful roles in the society. Sadly enough, all this happens at the expense of the larger public interest